Education has changed over time with the introduction of new educational technologies. The British Broadcasting Corporation began broadcasting educational radio programs in schools. In the 1970s, the US Army began using overhead projectors in military training. After several decades, the Army abandoned these overhead projectors for electronic ones. In the USA, the Betamax video cassette recorder became available in 1976. Increasingly, educational technology has become a way to improve the learning experience.
Table of contents
Lecture capture technology
Historically, video recording was only possible for professors and students on campus. Still, with recent developments in digital compression and high-speed Internet, the cost of creating and distributing such recordings has drastically decreased. This cost reduction has enabled universities to develop lecture capture systems that allow students to view recorded lectures from anywhere, at any time. As the technology evolved, MIT began to post recorded lectures for the public to watch, free of charge. Then, in 2005, YouTube started to release these recordings to the public. Today, many people use YouTube to view short educational clips and learn more about the field.
Second-generation solutions were more complex and expensive, often involving proprietary hardware installed on-premises and a single camera for recording. Software-based solutions were developed to supplement these primary tools. Second-generation lecture capture solutions typically capture a single video stream and pair it with static slides. A handful of solutions allowed recording of both sides and the presenter’s audio. But, even in these early days, the quality of the recordings was limited, and there were many challenges.
Thankfully, lecture capture technology has changed the way teaching works. By recording a lecture, students can view it at their own pace and review the material at their own convenience. While traditional learning methods may be more comfortable, technology is now a key component of accelerating learning. With this technology, instructors can now create engaging, two-way communication paths between student and instructor, which helps make learning more effective. The evolution of lecture capture technology in the past decade has allowed for an unprecedented level of student and instructor interaction.
Educational Technology learning objects
Technology has been a constant factor in the evolution of education and learning for centuries. It was a primary means of communication, and even in the 7th century BC, Moses used a stone chiseled into a tablet to convey the ten commandments. From there, the history of educational technology evolved around the main modes of communication. Now, technology has paved the way for modern-day educational techniques. Listed below are some of the important milestones in the history of educational technology.
Cognitive science and engineering have long had rich metaphors to describe the design, but the goal is to improve educational technology. Cognitive science theories were initially applied to educational technology, but it has also been adapted for other areas of study. Early cognitive science focused on specific objectives. The field has since become more eclectic, incorporating theory from various disciplines such as anthropology, film studies, and sociology. Collins focuses on improving educational technology, while Rogers is looking to develop design language.
Internet-based learning became feasible when the Open University in Britain pioneered the use of the World Wide Web to provide educational content. Murray Turoff, a professor at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, combined classroom teaching with online discussion forums. This technology, referred to as computer-mediated communication, was eventually incorporated into CoSy, an off-the-shelf software system that enabled online threaded group discussion forums. It was the precursor to today’s learning management systems.
Development of e-learning standards
Early attempts at e-learning date back to 1924, when Ohio State University professor Sidney Pressey designed the first electronic learning machine. This machine, known as the Automatic Teacher, was groundbreaking for its time. Later systems would be more collaborative and allow students to develop their knowledge together. In the early 2000s, digital communication in education reached a critical mass. The development of e-learning standards can be traced to this period.
Learning objects are self-contained units that are tagged with metadata and stored in XML files. These learning objects can be stored in a repository such as Merlot. Several standards exist for transporting and categorizing learning objects, including the Sharable Content Object Reference Model and the Schools Interoperability Framework. The next step in creating a course involves sequencing these learning objects.
Early developments in e-learning are often linked to the development of Internet protocols and other technologies. Arpanet was the first network to use Internet protocol. This allowed Professor Turoff and his student Roxanne Hiltz to integrate classroom teaching and online discussion forums. Their research would later be used in other courses, including on college campuses. The Open University further pioneered the development of computer-mediated communication (CMC) standards.
As technology advances, educators must adopt new practices that support the growth of e-learning. While many claims are made about new technologies, it is often essential to consider those old technologies are largely outdated and may simply become incorporated into a richer technology environment. The same applies to the development of e-learning standards. It will help educators avoid wasting money on technology that will only serve to frustrate students rather than benefit them.
The history of educational technology is littered with contradictions, which were often weak and related to theoretical knowledge. On the other hand, contradictions that relate to practical knowledge were stronger and more severe. OER was a disruptive innovation that changed the way higher education was taught. To succeed, it took expert knowledge, institutional support, and time. Here are some ways OER can improve the education system. And there are still many more in store.
The researchers conducted interviews with four authors of open textbooks over four days at a university in Vancouver. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The data collected was analyzed according to research questions. First, they considered the knowledge experiences of individuals and their creation of open textbooks. Second, they discussed the controversies that emerged due to the proliferation of open textbooks. In a nutshell, the authors of open textbooks have created an educational innovation that can help students improve their education.
You may find a better option by evaluating the benefits of OER. OER has a wide variety of student benefits, including increased access and affordability. But despite the many benefits, OER remains a far cry from mainstream adoption. Among the main challenges faced by users is the lack of standardized assessments and the difficulty of finding quality materials. Therefore, comparing the two types of textbooks is imperative.
Educational Technology and COVID-19 pandemic
The recent COVID-19 pandemic posed a unique challenge to the future of education. While most governments opted to close schools during the pandemic, the disruptions created an opportunity to discover what works at scale and unlock the potential of education technology. This disruption will not likely repeat itself in the vast majority of low and middle-income countries, but the ripple effects will continue for generations.
The rapid development of EdTechs in recent years has led to the emergence of new IT devices and the digitization of teaching materials. These innovations have led to significant improvements in the efficiency of education but have not yet transformed the way it is provided. These developments are not enough to ensure that the current education system is beneficial for all students. Instead, OODA loops are required to foster the innovation of educational technology. As a result, various kinds of educational data will be collected through IT devices in classrooms and analyzed to improve individual and societal academic performance.
The COVID-19 pandemic accelerated the digital transformation of education services. While MOOCs and other emerging EdTechs were gaining prominence in education, most educational institutions were not yet ready to adopt the full range of new EdTechs. The impact of MOOCs and online courses was limited, and most higher educational institutions were slow to adopt them. The only exceptions were private universities in remote areas, which could not attract the same number of students.
The development of a badge program is relatively recent. In the early stages, a single department implemented the system in class. After the program proved to be effective, faculty and instructors branched out into other content areas. In the case of C, a few tech-savvy individuals were able to implement the system, but the college did not have the resources to create badges for all areas. Instead, they sourced undergraduate students with experience in the subject areas to help design badges.
The concept of digital badges is fairly new, although it has been on a steady upward trajectory for more than a decade. The Connecting Credentials initiative is helping make these badges meaningful credentials. Higher education embraces the idea with MIT, Georgetown University, and Stamford University programs. While many educators are still unaware of the badge program, the development of digital badges continues to evolve.
There is a considerable amount of hype around digital badges. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate whether or not digital badges are as effective as their advocates claim. We review 23 empirical studies to achieve this and formulate evaluative research questions. Results indicate that digital badges can improve engagement and motivation in learners, although this conclusion is not universal, and more research is needed to explore this issue. This research is also limited by the small sample size of 44 participants.