Review of Instructional Design Models

Before we can discuss instructional design models (IDM), it is necessary to define what they are. Instructional Systems Design (ISD) is the process of designing instructional experiences
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Before we can discuss instructional design models (IDM), it is necessary to define what they are. Instructional Systems Design (ISD) is the process of designing instructional experiences that improve the efficiency and effectiveness of learning and skill acquisition. The instructive design was developed during World War II when large numbers of military personnel needed to be trained quickly to do various tasks.

Although the terms Instructional Technology are often used interchangeably with Educational Technology, they are not the same. While the terms Instructional Technology and Educational Technology are often used interchangeably, they are not the same.

Let’s look at instructional design models now that we have the basic definitions. A model is a representation or description of complex entities or phenomena. Its purpose is to provide an objective understanding of the entity. The designer can use models to help visualize the problem and then break it down into smaller units.

An instructional design model is a framework for creating instruction that improves learning outcomes and encourages learners to understand deeper. IDM, or instructional design model, teaches instructional designers how to arrange pedagogical situations to reach instructional goals. Effective instructional models are built on learning and instructional theories.

Prescriptive models can be classified as descriptive and descriptive. Prescriptive models are used to plan and organize instructional activities. Descriptive models describe the learning environment and its effects on variables.

Many instructional models have been created over the years. Most of them are based on the ADDIE Model. ADDIE stands to Analyze, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation.

This systematic IDM is composed of five phases that have been refined over time in models such as the Dick and Carey Design Model and Rapid Prototyping Model.

 These instructional models are typical examples: 

  1. Merrill’s First Principles of Instruction
  2. Bloom’s Learning Taxonomy
  3. Kirkpatrick’s 4 levels of training evaluation
  4. Keller’s ARCS Model of Motivational Design (Attention – Relevance – Confidence – Satisfaction).
  5. Nine Events of Instruction by Gagne
  6. Kemp’s IDM
  7. ASSURE Model (Analyze learners – state objectives – select methods – media, and materials – utilize media and materials – require learner participation – evaluate and revise)
  8. Smith and Ragan IDM
  9. Rapid Prototyping Model

It is not an exhaustive list.

It is essential to remember that the learner should be central to all instructional models. Positive instructional outcomes are also dependent on the learning context. This applies to instruction at all levels, including instruction at all levels, i.e., K-12 education, adult education, and higher education. Teachers, designers, trainers, college instructors, and others can use these instructional design models.

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